20. Top Consults: Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis

This week on Pulm PEEPs, we are continuing our Top Consults series with a discussion on the work-up and diagnosis of Pulmonary Hypertension. See our prior Radiology Rounds on signs of PAH on CT scan, and listen to our follow-up episode on right heart catheterizations for some background before this episode… or dive right in! We’ll cover everything from history and physical, to recent guideline changes in the definition of PH, and much, much more!

Meet Our Guests

Erika Berman Rosenzweig is a Professor of Pediatrics and the Director of the Pulmonary Hypertension Center and CTEPH Program at Columbia University Medical Center / New-York Presbyterian Hospital. She is an active member of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association, was the Editor-in-Chief of Advances in Pulmonary Hypertension and is on the Scientific Board of the World Symposium on PH.

Catherine Simpson is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital and is one of the faculty members in our Pulmonary Hypertension group. Her clinical and research areas of expertise are in pulmonary vascular disease and right heart function. Her research is focused on novel biomarker discovery and metabolomics in pulmonary vascular disease.

Cyrus Kholdani is an Instructor in Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. He is also the director of the Pulmonary Hypertension Program at BIDMC, and is actively involved in clinical care and clinical research in a variety of pulmonary vascular disease domains.

Consult Patient

Ms. Pamela Harris (PH) is a 47-year-old woman with PMH of migraines, obesity s/p gastric sleeve (BMI now 33), and a history of remote DVT in her 20s while on OCP s/p 6 months of AC who is referred to pulmonary hypertension clinic for evaluation of dyspnea on exertion. She has actually had dyspnea for some time and previously it has been attributed to her weight. Based on this, she pursued a gastric sleeve and has lost 55 pounds, but continues to have shortness of breath. She has no cough, and does not get dyspnea at rest, but notes that after 1 flight of stairs, or 2-3 blocks on flat ground she has shortness of breath. She saw her PCP and had basic labs, basic spirometry, and an echocardiogram. He did not note anything significant on examination in the notes.


The labs had no anemia, and normal renal and liver function. Her serum bicarbonate was 25 and there was no blood gas. Spirometry showed an FVC 82% predicted, FEV1 83% predicted, and FEV1/FVC was 99% predicted. The echocardiogram had normal LVEF, mild LVH, normal RV size and function qualitatively. There was mild TR with tricuspid valve peak regurgitant velocity of 3.4 m/sec. The estimated PASP + RA pressure (based on normal IVC diameter 2.1 cm) was 46 mmHg.

RHC: Systemic BPs 140s/90s, with O2 saturations 97-98% on RA throughout. RA mean pressure was 9, RV was 48 with an RVEDP of 17, PA was 48/27 with mean of 34, and PCWP mean was 11. CO/CI by Fick was 5.56 / 2.42, and by thermo was similar, 5.8 / 2.52. Her PA sat was 62%, and PVR was 3.97 WU.

Key Learning Points

History

  • Understand the constellation of symptoms and the functional limitation
    • The goal is to assign a WHO functional class by the end of the visit
  • Evaluate the time course and evolution of the symptoms
  • Concerning symptoms that need to be addressed
    • Palpitations
    • Pre-syncope
    • Syncope
    • Chest pain
    • LE edema
  • Evaluate for risk factors to explain or contribute to pulmonary hypertension
    • Signs or symptoms of OSA
    • Signs or symptoms of auto-immune disease
      • Raynauds
      • Skin changes
    • Family history
      • Heritable lung disease
      • Clotting disorders
      • Auto-immune disease
    • Social history
      • Exposure history
      • Smoking

Physical Exam

  • Look for signs that confirm PH
    • Loud P2
      • Accentuated with elevated PVR
      • Can hear pretty early on. Could be one of the earliest findings
    • TR murmur – pansystolic murmur at RUSB
    • Diastolic murmur if severe pulmonary insufficiency
  • Look for signs of right heart failure
    • JVD
    • S4 gallop – later in course
    • RV heave – later in course
    • Peripheral edema
    • Pulsatile liver or hepatosplenomegaly
  • Look for signs of other secondary causes of PH
    • Mitral regurgitation or aortic stenosis murmur
    • Asymmetric lower extremity edema
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Skin findings concerning for auto-immune disease or liver disease
    • Arthritis

Work up for etiology of PH

  • CBC with diff – myeloproliferative and hemolytic anemia
  • CMP – renal function, liver function
  • Serologies – lupus, scleroderma, vasculitis – broad evaluation
  • HIV, hepatitis
  • Liver duplex if concerned
  • ECHO with bubble
  • Consider cardiac MRI
  • History of toxin and anorexigenic use
  • CT scan of the chest
  • PFTs including lung volumes and DLCO to evaluate for lung disease
  • Pulse oximetry at rest and with exercise
  • A sleep study or nocturnal oximetry
  • V/Q scan for all patients

References and links for further reading

  1. Bonno EL, Viray MC, Jackson GR, Houston BA, Tedford RJ. Modern Right Heart Catheterization: Beyond Simple Hemodynamics. Advances in Pulmonary Hypertension. 2020;19(1):6-15. doi:10.21693/1933-088X-19.1.6
  2. Augustine DX, Coates-Bradshaw LD, Willis J, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: a guideline protocol from the British Society of Echocardiography. Echo Res Pract. 2018;5(3):G11-G24. doi:10.1530/ERP-17-0071
  3. Callan P, Clark AL. Right heart catheterisation: indications and interpretation. Heart. 2016;102(2):147-157. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307786
  4. Chokkalingam Mani B, Chaudhari SS. Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Accessed April 18, 2022. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557404/
  5. D’Alto M, Dimopoulos K, Coghlan JG, Kovacs G, Rosenkranz S, Naeije R. Right Heart Catheterization for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Hypertension: Controversies and Practical Issues. Heart Failure Clinics. 2018;14(3):467-477. doi:10.1016/j.hfc.2018.03.011
  6. Galiè N, McLaughlin VV, Rubin LJ, Simonneau G. An overview of the 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension. European Respiratory Journal. 2019;53(1). doi:10.1183/13993003.02148-2018
  7. Rosenkranz S, Preston IR. Right heart catheterisation: best practice and pitfalls in pulmonary hypertension. European Respiratory Review. 2015;24(138):642-652. doi:10.1183/16000617.0062-2015

17. Top Consults: Pneumothorax

This week on Pulm PEEPs we are resuming our Top Consults series with a common pulmonary presentation that can range from incidental to life-threatening: pneumothorax. We will talk through three different cases and review assessments and common management strategies. Make sure to subscribe to our show wherever you listen to podcasts, rate and review us, and visit our website to catch up on all our old content.

Meet Our Guests

Christine Argento is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital and specializes in Interventional Pulmonology.

Charlie Murphy received his medical degree from LSU School of Medicine in New Orleans and completed his internal medicine residency at the Montefiore-Einstein Internal Medicine Residency Program. He is currently a Pulmonary and Critical Care fellow at New York-Presbyterian Hospital / Columbia University Medical Center, where he is one of the chief fellows.

Consult Patients

Barry is a 26-year-old man who came to the emergency department with acute onset of shortness of breath. He is tachypneic to 26, saturating 88% on RA so he was put on NC and is now 95% at 4L, HR 120, BP 145/85. There is only limited history but he reports he has never had anything like this before. His CXR shows a pneumothorax 5cm from the apex.

Larry is a 22-year-old man with normal HR and BP, saturating 96% on RA and breathing 14 x a minute. He has a CXR that shows a small pneumothorax. He has no past medical history and has never had a pneumothorax before, but he is a 1 PPD smoker and smokes marijuana.

Carrie is a 54-year-old woman who has been admitted with a COPD exacerbation. She has a history of emphysema, is not on home oxygen, and came in 2 days ago with worsening dyspnea and increased productive cough. She has been being treated with nebulizers every 4 hours, azithromycin, steroids, and supplemental O2 at 2L NC/ minute and never required NIPPV. This morning she had a coughing spell and significant chest pain and a CXR shows a moderate-sized left-sided pneumothorax. She is on 10L NC now with tachypnea to 26, and HR 105 but stable blood pressure.

Key Learning Points

Management options for a persistent air leak

— Conservative management: continue chest tube to suction

— Heimlich valve – can discharge a patient with this valve if they are stable to water seal, but don’t tolerate clamping

— Blood patch – inject the patient’s own blood into the chest tube to try to heal any pleural defect

— Chemical pleurodesis – inject talc powder, doxycycline, or another substance through the chest tube to cause pleural irritation and closure of the pleural space

— Endobronchial valve – off-label use

— VATS – surgical pleurodesis, resection of blebs

References and links for further reading

  1. Baumann MH, Strange C, Heffner JE, et al. Management of spontaneous pneumothorax: an American College of Chest Physicians Delphi consensus statement. Chest. 2001;119(2):590-602. doi:10.1378/chest.119.2.590
  2. Bintcliffe OJ, Hallifax RJ, Edey A, et al. Spontaneous pneumothorax: time to rethink management? Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(7):578-588. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00220-9
  3. Brown SGA, Ball EL, Perrin K, et al. Conservative versus Interventional Treatment for Spontaneous Pneumothorax. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(5):405-415. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1910775
  4. MacDuff A, Arnold A, Harvey J. Management of spontaneous pneumothorax: British Thoracic Society pleural disease guideline 2010. Thorax. 2010;65(Suppl 2):ii18-ii31. doi:10.1136/thx.2010.136986
  5. Sahn SA, Heffner JE. Spontaneous pneumothorax. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(12):868-874. doi:10.1056/NEJM200003233421207
  6. Tschopp JM, Bintcliffe O, Astoul P, et al. ERS task force statement: diagnosis and treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Eur Respir J. 2015;46(2):321-335. doi:10.1183/09031936.00219214
  7. Zarogoulidis P, Kioumis I, Pitsiou G, et al. Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatment. J Thorac Dis. 2014;6(Suppl 4):S372-S376. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.09.24

9. Top Consults: Interstitial Lung Disease Diagnosis

This week we are absolutely thrilled to be joined by three Interstitial Lung Disease experts to discuss the workup and differential for a patient with a new presentation of suspected ILD. This is also our first episode in a collaboration between the Pulm PEEPs and the American Thoracic Society Clinical Problems Assembly. In a series of episodes, we will be joined by pulmonary experts from around the country who are leaders in the ATS CP Assembly to provide content on common and cutting-edge topics in PCCM.

Meet Our Guests

Sonye Danoff is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and is Co-Director of the John Hopkins Interstitial Lung Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis program. She also serves as the Assembly Chair of the Clinical Problems Assembly for the American Thoracic Society.

John Kim is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at UVA and has both clinical and research expertise in interstitial lung disease with a focus on pulmonary fibrosis.

Shweta Sood is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Penn Medicine whose expertise is in Interstitial Lung Disease. She is an integral part of fellowship training where she leads the monthly ILD conference for fellows as well as provides didactics for ILD cases.

Consult Patient

A 66-year-old man who is a never smoker with a past medical history of hypertension and osteoarthritis was admitted to the hospital after presenting with progressive dyspnea on exertion to dyspnea at rest and was found to be hypoxemic. He reports 4 months of progressive dyspnea on exertion but on further questioning, thinks he was last normal about 1.5 years ago when he could walk 2 miles at a time. Currently, he can only walk 0.25 to 0.5 miles before needing to stop. He reports an intermittent, dry cough throughout the day that is not associated with eating, position, or sleeping. A full ROS is negative including for rashes or joint pains. His family history is notable only for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. He is a never smoker, drinks in moderation 1-2 x a week, and lives in the suburbs with his wife. His house has central heating and air conditioning, they have no pets, and they have carpeted floors. He is a retired police detective.

His physical exam is notable for fine crackles at the bilateral bases on pulmonary auscultation, and he is breathing comfortably on nasal cannula although mildly tachypneic to 18 breaths per minute. He has no signs of volume overload, no peripheral clubbing, no rashes, and joint exam does not reveal swelling or synovitis.

Key Learning Points

Take away points from our guests:

— ILD is a symptom, not a diagnosis

— The first time a patient is evaluated for interstitial lung disease is the best chance for making the diagnosis so take the time to evaluate them thoughtfully

— Start the physical exam with the hands first. The hands can reveal a lot about the patient (clubbing, cyanosis, joint, skin, and nailbed findings) and it establishes a personal connection

— When doing the pulmonary exam, percuss first from top to bottom to learn the size of the lungs, and then listen from bottom to top

— When reading a CT scan the simplest approach is “Is it a UIP pattern or not?”. This can be your first diagnostic divide. UIP is consistent with IPF, and in select circumstances connective tissue disease, occupational lung disease, or advanced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Non-UIP patterns have a broader differential

— A multi-disciplinary interstitial lung disease conference is the gold standard for establishing an ILD diagnosis

Gathering the history:

— Ask about onset: acute or chronic. “When was the last time your breathing was entirely normal?”

— Symptoms can be shortness of breath, a lingering cough, or often fatigue and decreased energy. Occurrence is important! Do symptoms occur only with exertion or at rest too?

— “Have you ever had chest imaging before?”

— Take a thorough exposure history, and the weird questions are all necessary! Ask about birds and feathers (pet birds, bird feeders, down pillows or blankets, hunting, taxidermy), mold or water damage, organic or inorganic compounds from work (landscaping, ship yards, coal mines)

American College of Chest Physicians – Interstitial Lung Disease Patient Questionnaire

Physical Exam:

— Assess stability first and foremost

— Lung findings: crackles, inspiratory squeaks (often in hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

— Look for evidence of alternative diagnoses: volume overload, liver disease, signs of infection

— Evaluate for signs of connective tissue disease: examine the skin around the forehead and mouth for signs of scleroderma, look for rashes, perform a thorough joint examination and look at their hands, and assess muscle strength

Imaging:

— Order a high-resolution CT scan without contrast. High resolution means thin slices that are 1-2 mm thick. Contrast should be avoided if possible because it makes looking for subtle reticulations or ground-glass opacities harder

— Inspiratory and expiratory films help evaluate for gas trapping. If present, this may indicate hypersensitivity pneumonitis

— Prone films allow you to distinguish reticular changes in the dependent portions of the lungs from atelectasis

Reading the CT scan:

— Look at the distribution first. Is it uniform from top to bottom or not? Is it subpleural, peripheral predominant, or central?

— Identify key features: reticulation, traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, ground-glass opacities, cysts, and nodules

Laboratory evaluation:

— ANA, Scl-70, DS DNA, anti-RNP, anti-centromere, RF, CCP, SSA, SSB, RNA pol 3, HIV, myositis panel, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis panel

Pulmonary function tests:

— A restrictive ventialtory defect is the classic pattern and can tell you about severity. In ILD, TLC, VC, FRC, and RV are generally all reduced in proportion

— Identify if there is obstruction or not, because if present this may indicate coexisting emphysema or hypersensitivity pneumonitis

–The DLCO can be helpful for disease severity, and for raising concern about other co-existing diagnoses such as pulmonary vascular disease, or emphysema

— A DLCO < 50% predicted may predict that the patient will need oxygen with exertion and the patient should be walked

6 Minute Walk Test:

— This should be performed for all new patients because it is important for prognosis

— In the first year after diagnosis, a 6MWD should be performed every 3 – 4 months to assess disease trajectory. It can be done every 6 – 12 months after that.

Differential Diagnosis:

Silo ILDs into two large buckets

1) An exposure, trigger, or underlying cause is present: hypersensitivity pneumonitis, medication-induced, occupational lung disease, connective tissue disease, granulomatous disorder

2) Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

References and links for further reading

  1. Raghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788-824. doi:10.1164/rccm.2009-040GL
  2. Raghu G, Brown KK. Interstitial lung disease: clinical evaluation and keys to an accurate diagnosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 2004;25(3):409-419. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2004.05.007
  3. Bradley B, Branley HM, Egan JJ, et al. Interstitial lung disease guideline: the British Thoracic Society in collaboration with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Irish Thoracic Society. Thorax. 2008;63 Suppl 5:v1-58. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.101691
  4. American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. This joint statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) was adopted by the ATS board of directors, June 2001 and by the ERS Executive Committee, June 2001. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165(2):277-304. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.165.2.ats01
  5. Lederer DJ, Martinez FJ. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;378(19):1811-1823. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1705751
  6. Travis WD, Hunninghake G, King TE, et al. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: report of an American Thoracic Society project. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(12):1338-1347. doi:10.1164/rccm.200611-1685OC
  7. Wijsenbeek M, Cottin V. Spectrum of Fibrotic Lung Diseases. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;383(10):958-968. doi:10.1056/NEJMra2005230
  8. Hariri LP, Roden AC, Chung JH, et al. The Role of Surgical Lung Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: Perspective from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation. Annals ATS. 2021;18(10):1601-1609. doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1179FR
  9. Exposures. hpLung. Accessed February 12, 2022. https://www.hplung.com/

7. Top Consults: Severe Asthma Exacerbation

We are excited to bring you another episode in our Pulm PEEPs Top Consults series! Kristina Montemayor and David Furfaro, are joined by Sandy Zaeh to discuss the assessment and management of a patient with a severe asthma exacerbation. We’ll follow a consult patient from the emergency department to the ICU, and cover everything from the physiology of pulsus paradoxus in asthma to how to manage the ventilator in status asthmaticus. Listen today and please send any questions our way on Twitter @pulmPEEPS.

Meet Our Guests

Sandy Zaeh is an Instructor of Medicine and Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine physician at Yale School of Medicine.

Key Learning Points

References and links for further reading

  1. Chung KF, Wenzel SE, Brozek JL, et al. International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. European Respiratory Journal. 2014;43(2):343-373. doi:10.1183/09031936.00202013
  2. Rodrigo GJ, Rodrigo C, Hall JB. Acute asthma in adults: a review. Chest. 2004;125(3):1081-1102. doi:10.1378/chest.125.3.1081
  3. Godwin HT, Fix ML, Baker O, Madsen T, Walls RM, Brown CA. Emergency Department Airway Management for Status Asthmaticus With Respiratory Failure. Respir Care. 2020;65(12):1904-1907. doi:10.4187/respcare.07723
  4. Althoff MD, Holguin F, Yang F, et al. Noninvasive Ventilation Use in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Asthma Exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(11):1520-1530. doi:10.1164/rccm.201910-2021OC
  5. Brenner B, Corbridge T, Kazzi A. Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation of the Asthmatic Patient in Respiratory Failure. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;6(4):371-379. doi:10.1513/pats.P09ST4
  6. Laher AE, Buchanan SK. Mechanically Ventilating the Severe Asthmatic. J Intensive Care Med. 2018;33(9):491-501. doi:10.1177/0885066617740079
  7. Leatherman J. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma. Chest. 2015;147(6):1671-1680. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1733

4. Top Consults: Hemoptysis

Pulm PEEPs hosts, Kristina Montemayor and David Furfaro, bring our first episode in our Top Consults series. In this series, we will bring in experts to work through the most common pulmonary and critical care consults. Whether you are the consulting physician, or a pulmonologist responding to the page, these episodes are geared to give you all the information you need to care for your patients!

Today, we are joined by Chris Kapp and Matthew Schimmel, two interventional pulmonologists, to discuss hemoptysis. Chris and Matt will help us work through two hemoptysis consults, and together we’ll provide a framework for thinking about hemoptysis, outline some key components of the evaluation, and delve into treatment options.

Key Learning Points

Hemoptysis Evaluation

Hemoptysis Management

Life-Threatening or Large Volume Hemoptysis

  1. Stabilize the patient! Make sure the airway is protected either by the patient coughing themselves, or intubation if needed. Provide hemodynamic support with IVF, blood products, and pressors if needed. If it is known which lung has the bleeding the patient can be positioned so the lung with the bleeding is down. This protects the non-bleeding lung.
  2. Correct any bleeding diathesis If the patient is on anti-coagulation, or has any reversible bleeding diathesis, these should be corrected immediately to reduce further bleeding.
  3. Localize the bleed If the patient is stable, they should undergo a CTA to localize the bleeding. If they are not stable to make it to a CT scan, a bronchoscopy should be performed.
  4. Bronchoscopic treatment In addition to clearing blood from the airway, bronchoscopy can localize the bleeding. With available expertise, bronchoscopic treatments can be performed such as ice saline, topical epinephrine, or balloon tamponade to isolate the bleed.
  5. Definitive therapy with arteriography and embolization Patients with life-threatening hemoptysis should ultimately undergo arteriography and embolization of any bleeding vessel. If this is not possible, then surgery can be needed in some cases.
  6. A note on diffuse hemoptysis If there is not one distinct bleeding lesion, then localizing and treating the bleed becomes more difficult. For diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, evaluation should be performed for if it is primary, and due to an immunologic cause and capillaritis, or secondary to a systemic disease and / or bleeding diathesis. These investigations will guide available treatment options. Capillaritis from an immunologic cause, such as lupus or vasculitis, can be treated with systemic glucocorticoids and an additional immunosuppressive agent such as cyclophosphamide or rituximab.

Non-life-threatening or Small Volume Hemoptysis

  1. Monitor for clinical worsening Patient’s should be monitored, either in the in-patient or out-patient setting, for increased volume or frequency of hemoptysis and for any clinical worsening, such as desaturations or decreased ability to clear the airway.
  2. Correct any bleeding diathesis If the patient is on anti-coagulation, or has any reversible bleeding diathesis, these should be corrected immediately to reduce further bleeding. In pattients with non-life-threateneing hemoptysis this requires careful consideration of balancing the risk of bleeding vs the benefits for continuing anti-coagulation.
  3. Evaluate for underlying cause Patient’s should undergo imaging and evaluation for the underlying cause of the hemoptysis. This may be evidence of an underlying infection, a pulmonary embolism, or new lung lesions making the patient at risk. If the source can’t be found on non-invasive imaging, and there is no clear systemic source such as an infection, a bronchoscopy is warranted. Any underlying cause should be treated and investigated further.
  4. Inhaled Tranexamic Acid Nebulized tranexamic acid is well tolerated and can help resolve hemopytysis without invasive procedures.

References and links for further reading

  1. Gagnon S, Quigley N, Dutau H, Delage A, Fortin M. Approach to Hemoptysis in the Modern Era. Can Respir J. 2017;2017:1565030. doi:10.1155/2017/1565030
  2. Radchenko C, Alraiyes AH, Shojaee S. A systematic approach to the management of massive hemoptysis. J Thorac Dis. 2017;9(Suppl 10):S1069-S1086. doi:10.21037/jtd.2017.06.41
  3. Davidson K, Shojaee S. Managing Massive Hemoptysis. Chest. 2020;157(1):77-88. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2019.07.012
  4. Lara AR, Schwarz MI. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage. CHEST. 2010;137(5):1164-1171. doi:10.1378/chest.08-2084
  5. Wand O, Guber E, Guber A, Epstein Shochet G, Israeli-Shani L, Shitrit D. Inhaled Tranexamic Acid for Hemoptysis Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Chest. 2018;154(6):1379-1384. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2018.09.026