65. Rapid Fire Journal Club 6 – SARCORT Trial

Today we’re continuing our Rapid Fire Journal Club series. We’ve mainly been discussing landmark trials, but today we’re delving into a new study with interesting findings that are applicable to a common presentation in pulmonary medicine: treatment naive sarcoidosis. We’re discussing the SARCORT trial published in the European Respiratory Journal in 2023. This study evaluated a high vs low dose steroid trial in patients with sarcoidosis. Pulm PEEPs Associate Editor Luke Hedrick walks us through the study.

Article and Reference

Today we’re discussing the 2023 SARCORT Trial published in the European Respiratory Journal.

Reference: Dhooria S, Sehgal IS, Agarwal R, Muthu V, Prasad KT, Dogra P, Debi U, Garg M, Bal A, Gupta N, Aggarwal AN. High-dose (40 mg) versus low-dose (20 mg) prednisolone for treating sarcoidosis: a randomised trial (SARCORT trial). Eur Respir J. 2023 Sep 9;62(3):2300198. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00198-2023. PMID: 37690784.

Infographic

This can be downloaded on our website and will be shared on Twitter and Instagram.

64. Fellows’ Case Files: Emory University School of Medicine

Hi everyone, we’re here with another Fellows’ Case Files. Today, we’re going virtually to Emory University School of Medicine. We’re joined by Associated Editor Luke Hedrick to dive into a critical care case. Listen in and let us know if you have any additional thoughts or questions!

Meet Our Guests

Luke Hedrick is a first-year pulmonary and critical care fellow at Emory University. He did his internal medicine residency at BIDMC in Boston. He is also one of our amazing Associate Editors here at Pulm PEEPs

Shirine Allam is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Emory University School of Medicine where she is the Program Director of both the Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine fellowship as well as the Critical Care Medicine fellowship. She completed her PCCM training at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, followed by a Sleep Medicine fellowship at Stanford. She has received multiple teaching awards throughout her career

Case Presentation

A 32-year-old male is brought in by his coworkers unresponsive. He is a construction worker and was his usual self in the morning at the start of the day, but when they broke for lunch they noticed he was acting different—his arms were drooping, and while he initially was able to answer yes/no, he soon started babbling, then grunting, then vomited and became unresponsive. They laid him flat, threw cold water on him because it was 110 degrees and humid outside that day, and brought him to the ED.

When they arrive in the ED, he is unresponsive and warm to the touch. His vitals are notable for an oral temperature of 105, HR in the 160s, BP 76/34, a RR in the high 30s, and an SpO2 100% RA. His exam is relatively unremarkable other than for significant diaphoresis and both bowel and bladder incontinence.

Key Learning Points

  1. Definition and recognition of heat stroke: Heat stroke is characterized by hyperthermia (>104°F or 40°C) accompanied by CNS dysfunction, primarily caused by exertion or exposure. Encephalitis without significant heat load does not constitute heat stroke.
  2. Management priorities: Rapid cooling is paramount to minimize long-term complications and organ failure. Cooling should be initiated as soon as possible, even before transportation to a hospital, particularly in cases of exertional heat stroke.
  3. Cooling methods: Surface cooling, such as immersion in ice water, is the most effective way to cool heat-stroke patients. Alternative methods include the TACO method and evaporative cooling, although they are less efficient. Refrigerated IV fluids can be used as an adjunct, but they do not replace the need for surface cooling.
  4. Monitoring and goals: Shivering during cooling should be monitored to prevent excessive heat generation. The goal is to reach a normal core body temperature (~38°C or 100.4°F). Traditional antipyretics like aspirin and acetaminophen should be avoided due to ineffectiveness and potential toxicity.
  5. Approach to endotracheal tube (ETT) exchange: ETT exchange requires preparation for potential complications. This includes ensuring the availability of airway equipment, sedation of the patient, and having additional personnel for assistance. Direct visualization using a video laryngoscope is recommended, along with measuring and marking the exchange catheter for proper insertion depth.

The following infographic can be downloaded from our website:

References and Further Reading

1.Epstein Y, Yanovich R. Heatstroke. New England Journal of Medicine. 2019;380(25):2449-2459. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1810762

2. Sorensen C, Hess J. Treatment and Prevention of Heat-Related Illness. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022;387(15):1404-1413. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp2210623

63. Rapid Fire Journal Club 5 – Novel START

Today on our Rapid Fire Journal Club series, we’re discussing the Novel START study published in the NEJM in 2019. This study evaluated multiple strategies for the management of mild asthma with exacerbations, and it guides our current therapeutic approach. Pulm PEEPs Associate Editor Luke Hedrick walks us through the study. If you take care of asthma patients, be it in a primary care clinic, pulmonary clinic, or the hospital, make sure to listen in!

Article and Reference

Today we’re discussing the 2019 Novel START Study published in NEJM

Reference: Beasley R, Holliday M, Reddel HK, Braithwaite I, Ebmeier S, Hancox RJ, Harrison T, Houghton C, Oldfield K, Papi A, Pavord ID, Williams M, Weatherall M; Novel START Study Team. Controlled Trial of Budesonide-Formoterol as Needed for Mild Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 23;380(21):2020-2030. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1901963. Epub 2019 May 19. PMID: 31112386.

Infographic

This can be downloaded on our website and will be shared on Twitter and Instagram.

Radiology Rounds – 1/16/24

We are back with another #RadiologyRounds for 2024 featuring high-yield imaging findings and teaching points for you to review

In this immunosuppressed patient, you find a reverse halo sign, right pleural effusion and left lower lobe consolidation.

Serum fungal markers are negative but given the reverse halo sign, you empirically start Amphotericin B given concern for pulmonary mucormycosis.

Given the profound neutropenia, the patient was predisposed and mucor was identified on lung tissue biopsy and IV Amphotericin-B was continued.

62. Sepsis Roundtable: Best Practices and Future Directions

We’re starting off 2024 with a bang!! Today we’re hosting another expert Roundtable discussion and we’re joined by internationally recognized experts in the field. We’ll tackle everything from teaching about sepsis, to how to incorporate guidelines into education and practice, to future research directions in the field. This is a can’t-miss discussion. Let us know what you think and other sepsis questions you have!

Meet Our Guests

Dr. Derek Angus is a Professor at the University of Pittsburgh where he holds the Mitchell P. Fink Endowed Chair in Critical Care Medicine and is the Chair of the Department of Critical Care Medicine. He is a world-renowned researcher in a range of critical care topics including sepsis, has hundreds of publications, and has led numerous NIH-funded studies.

Dr. Hallie Prescott is an Associate Professor in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Michigan. She is the Co-Chair of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines and is also an internationally recognized expert due to her research in improving sepsis outcomes. She has been recognized by both medical journals and professional societies for her outstanding contributions to the field.

Summary of Episode Discussion Topics

1. Sepsis Guidelines and Education

  • Surviving Sepsis Guidelines: Stressed as essential reading for professionals in pulmonary and critical care. They provide a structured approach to sepsis management.
  • Teaching Approaches: Transition from during-rounds teaching to focused, separate teaching sessions for trainees. Emphasizes the need to go beyond guidelines to include discussions on seminal articles, management strategies, and areas lacking robust data.

2. Clinical Skills and Decision Making in Sepsis Care

  • Early Recognition and Polypharmacy: Highlighted the need for timely sepsis identification and caution against excessive polypharmacy.
  • Mental Models in Care: Encourages building comprehensive mental models for understanding sepsis, stressing the importance of not just treating symptoms but understanding underlying causes.

3. Implementation of Sepsis Guidelines

  • Guideline Application in Bedside Care: Discusses the challenge of applying guidelines while considering patient-specific factors.
  • Fluid Resuscitation Practices: Identifies fluid resuscitation as a key area for improvement, with a shift towards more conservative approaches.
  • Overcoming Institutional Barriers: Addresses the fear of causing harm as a significant barrier to guideline implementation and emphasizes the need for balanced decision-making.

4. Advances in Sepsis Care and Prevention

  • Pre-Hospital Sepsis Management: Explores the role of early intervention in community settings and the potential of wearables for early detection.
  • Paramedic Role in Early Antibiotic Administration: Underlines the importance of starting antibiotics in the ambulance for suspected sepsis cases.

5. Recovery and Post-Discharge Care

  • Post-Discharge Initiatives: Focuses on improving handoffs from ICU to ward and from hospital to home. Highlights the importance of medication reconciliation and clear communication with primary care.
  • Challenges in Continuity of Care: Discusses the need for clear documentation and communication during patient transitions to ensure continuity of care.

6. Future Directions in Sepsis Treatment and Research

  • Phenotyping for Targeted Treatment: The potential of identifying patient subgroups through phenotyping for more effective, tailored treatments.
  • Adaptive Trial Designs: Advocates for large-scale adaptive platform trials that can test multiple interventions across diverse patient populations.

7. Personal Involvements and Perspectives

  • Experts’ Current Work: The panelists share their ongoing projects and research in sepsis care, reflecting a commitment to advancing the field through comprehensive and adaptive approaches.

References and Further Reading

  1. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, Antonelli M, Coopersmith CM, French C, Machado FR, Mcintyre L, Ostermann M, Prescott HC, Schorr C, Simpson S, Wiersinga WJ, Alshamsi F, Angus DC, Arabi Y, Azevedo L, Beale R, Beilman G, Belley-Cote E, Burry L, Cecconi M, Centofanti J, Coz Yataco A, De Waele J, Dellinger RP, Doi K, Du B, Estenssoro E, Ferrer R, Gomersall C, Hodgson C, Hylander Møller M, Iwashyna T, Jacob S, Kleinpell R, Klompas M, Koh Y, Kumar A, Kwizera A, Lobo S, Masur H, McGloughlin S, Mehta S, Mehta Y, Mer M, Nunnally M, Oczkowski S, Osborn T, Papathanassoglou E, Perner A, Puskarich M, Roberts J, Schweickert W, Seckel M, Sevransky J, Sprung CL, Welte T, Zimmerman J, Levy M. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-e1143. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005337. PMID: 34605781.
  2. Rudd KE, Kissoon N, Limmathurotsakul D, Bory S, Mutahunga B, Seymour CW, Angus DC, West TE. The global burden of sepsis: barriers and potential solutions. Crit Care. 2018 Sep 23;22(1):232. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2157-z. PMID: 30243300; PMCID: PMC6151187.
  3. Talisa VB, Yende S, Seymour CW, Angus DC. Arguing for Adaptive Clinical Trials in Sepsis. Front Immunol. 2018 Jun 28;9:1502. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01502. PMID: 30002660; PMCID: PMC6031704.
  4. Prescott HC, Angus DC. Enhancing Recovery From Sepsis: A Review. JAMA. 2018 Jan 2;319(1):62-75. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.17687. PMID: 29297082; PMCID: PMC5839473.
  5. https://mi-hms.org/quality-initiatives/sepsis-initiative
  6. Kowalkowski M, Chou SH, McWilliams A, Lashley C, Murphy S, Rossman W, Papali A, Heffner A, Russo M, Burke L, Gibbs M, Taylor SP; Atrium Health ACORN Investigators. Structured, proactive care coordination versus usual care for Improving Morbidity during Post-Acute Care Transitions for Sepsis (IMPACTS): a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2019 Nov 29;20(1):660. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3792-7. PMID: 31783900; PMCID: PMC6884908.
  7. Schmidt K, Worrack S, Von Korff M, Davydow D, Brunkhorst F, Ehlert U, Pausch C, Mehlhorn J, Schneider N, Scherag A, Freytag A, Reinhart K, Wensing M, Gensichen J; SMOOTH Study Group. Effect of a Primary Care Management Intervention on Mental Health-Related Quality of Life Among Survivors of Sepsis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Jun 28;315(24):2703-11. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.7207. PMID: 27367877; PMCID: PMC5122319.

Radiology Rounds – 12/19/23

As we approach the end of the year, we know that the hospital and clinic keep on rolling, so here is a CXR and pulmonary differential based #RadiologyRounds if you’re on for the holiday blocks A woman in her 50s has hypoxemia after being admitted with a femur fracture

The CXR shows signs of a left upper lobe collapse. The upper lungs should be the most lucent, with increased opacity as you go down. LUL collapse can be subtle, but you can see increased haziness at the lung apex. There is also rib crowding and left hemidiaphragm elevation. You can also see a small luftsichel sign. Luftsichel sign is a thin strip of air that can be seen between the collapsed LUL and the superior mediastinum created by the still-aerated superior segment of the lower lobe. The collapse is better appreciated on CT.

Bronchoscopy was performed to investigate the etiology of the lobar collapse. On the bronchoscopy there was an endobronchial lesion completely occluding the left upper lobe bronchus. The mass was biopsied and sent for histopathology

Endobronchial lesions can be malignant or benign, and within malignancy then can be primary or secondary. This patient had no clinical signs of pneumonia and no clear reason to mucus plug so malignancy was top of the differential. Here are differential considerations:

The pathology returned positive for a carcinoid tumor, which can typically arise as endbronchial lesions. PET/CT showed only local disease (femur fracture unrelated), and she is planned for rigid bronchoscopy with laser therapy and corecath ablation for definitive resection.

61. PulmPEEPs and ICU Ed and Todd-Cast: ACORN Trial

This week we are excited to bring you our podcast cross-over event as we are joined by Eddie Qian and Todd Rice, the co-founders of the ICU Ed and Todd-Cast. Listen today as we discuss the recent ACORN trial evaluating the use of Cefepime versus Pipercillin-Tazobactam in adults hospitalized with acute infection.

References: Qian ET, Casey JD, Wright A, Wang L, Shotwell MS, Siemann JK, Dear ML, Stollings JL, Lloyd BD, Marvi TK, Seitz KP, Nelson GE, Wright PW, Siew ED, Dennis BM, Wrenn JO, Andereck JW, Han JH, Self WH, Semler MW, Rice TW; Vanderbilt Center for Learning Healthcare and the Pragmatic Critical Care Research Group. Cefepime vs Piperacillin-Tazobactam in Adults Hospitalized With Acute Infection: The ACORN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023 Oct 24;330(16):1557-1567.

60. Rapid Fire Journal Club 4 – The Lung Health Study

This week for our Rapid Fire Journal Club we’re talking about The Lung Health Study published in 1994 in JAMA. This study evaluates the impact of smoking cessation and short-acting bronchodilators on the decline of lung health. Pulm PEEPs Associate Editor Luke Hedrick returns to walk through the analysis of this study.

Article and Reference

Today we’re talking about the 1994 Lung Health Study from JAMA

Reference: Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Kiley JP, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Conway WA Jr, Enright PL, Kanner RE, O’Hara P, et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study. JAMA. 1994 Nov 16;272(19):1497-505. PMID: 7966841.

Infographic

This can be downloaded on our website and will be shared on Twitter and Instagram.

59. Top Consults: Lung Transplant 101

We’re back with our Top Consults series to talk about Lung Transplant! This is a topic that every pulmonologist should have background knowledge about since it impacts the care of patients with end-stage lung disease of any cause. We will talk about the indications for referral and transplant, how to advise patients and some unique considerations for evaluation. Enjoy, rate and review us, and share your thoughts about the episode!

Meet Our Guests

Dr. Meghan Aversa is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Toronto and her expertise involves patients with end stage lung disease and lung transplant.

Dr. Hannah Mannem is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Virginia Health. Hannah joined faculty at UVA in 2016 and she has expertise in ILD and Lung Transplant.

Learning Points

Trends in lung transplant:

  1. Global Increase in Lung Transplants: Over the past three decades, there has been a gradual worldwide increase in lung transplants, with approximately 4,500 performed annually. North America conducts over half of these transplants, and the growth is particularly notable in double lung transplants.
  2. Indications and Disease Trends: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has seen a significant rise in lung transplant indications, surpassing COPD as the leading cause. ILD, especially idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), constitutes a substantial portion (40%) of all transplants. However, the trend is primarily observed in North America.
  3. Decline in Cystic Fibrosis Cases: While Cystic Fibrosis is still a significant indication for lung transplant, its percentage has been declining, likely due to improvements in drugs and CFTR modulators.
  4. Evolution of Lung Transplant Candidates: Over the past five years, lung transplant candidates have become sicker, with higher listing scores and increased hospitalization rates at the time of transplant. More patients have antibodies affecting match difficulty. The average age of patients has increased, with 35% being over 65, a demographic that was previously considered contraindicated.
  5. Impact of COVID-19: The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced lung transplant trends. In 2020, UNOS added COVID-19-related ARDS and pulmonary fibrosis as indications. In 2021, these indications constituted about 10% of lung transplants, making it the third most common indication. Two-thirds were due to COVID-19 ARDS, and one-third due to pulmonary fibrosis. The long-term impact, especially with evolving vaccine dynamics, is still uncertain.

Indications for transplant referral:

  1. ISHLT Consensus Document Update (2021): The ISHLT consensus document for lung transplant candidate selection was updated in 2021. It is available on the ISHLT website and serves as a valuable guideline for pulmonologists considering referrals for lung transplant assessment.
  2. General Rule of Thumb for Chronic Lung Diseases: According to the consensus document, a general rule of thumb for all patients with chronic and stage lung diseases is to consider lung transplant if there is a high (more than 50%) risk of death from the lung disease within the next two years. Prognostic markers vary based on the underlying lung disease.
  3. Disease-Specific Recommendations: The consensus document provides disease-specific recommendations. The key diseases highlighted are COPD, ILD, CF, and PH.
    • COPD: Referral is recommended when the BODE index is in the range of 5 to 6, with additional factors that increase mortality, such as frequent exacerbations, low FEV1 (20-25%), or rapidly increasing BODE. Referral is also advised for clinically deteriorating patients or those with an unacceptably low quality of life despite maximal medical therapy.
    • ILD (Particularly IPF): Early referral is suggested, ideally at the time of diagnosis. For any pulmonary fibrosis, referral is recommended if FEC is less than 80% or declining by 10% in two years, or DLCO is less than 40% or declining by 15% in two years. Other factors for referral include radiographic progression or a need for supplemental oxygen.
    • Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Referral is encouraged for those with FEV1 less than 30%, and even 40% if there’s reduced walk distance, hypercapnia, PH, frequent exacerbations, or rapid decline.
    • Pulmonary Hypertension (PH): Referral criteria include a REVEAL score of eight, significant RV dysfunction, progressive disease on therapy, need for IV prostacyclin therapy, and specific conditions like PVOD, PCH, scleroderma pulmonary artery aneurysms, which should be referred early due to their rapid progression.

Transplant evaluation process

  1. Phases of Lung Transplant Evaluation:
    • Referral and Initial Visit: The process begins with a referral, often from a primary pulmonologist. Patients can also self-refer. The initial phase involves insurance authorization and confirming the underlying diagnosis while ensuring all other treatment options are exhausted.
    • Assessment of Disease Severity: The severity of end-stage lung disease is assessed to determine the timing of the workup, which varies depending on the patient’s condition and the center’s protocols.
    • Diagnostic Steps: A thorough diagnostic workup follows the initial visit, including various tests, imaging, and meetings with multidisciplinary teams to assess medical and social factors influencing transplant success.
    • Follow-Up Appointments: Patients typically have multiple follow-up appointments to track the evolution of the disease and ensure health maintenance and vaccinations are up to date.
    • Selection Committee: The final phase involves a selection committee that determines if the patient is a candidate. If so, there may be conditional requirements before officially listing the patient.
  2. Multidisciplinary Approach: Lung transplant evaluation involves collaboration with various specialists, including social work, finance, nutrition, pharmacy, physical therapy, and potentially other consult services. The efficiency of this process is optimized for both the patient and the medical team.
  3. Diagnostic Workup:
    • Medical Testing: Involves blood work, cardiac testing (echo, left and right heart cath), and imaging, including abdominal imaging, VQ scans, DEXA scans, and 24-hour urine analysis.
    • Multidisciplinary Meetings: Patients meet with members of the multidisciplinary team, addressing medical comorbidities as well as social and psychological factors.
    • Follow-Up Appointments: Multiple appointments allow for tracking disease progression and ensuring overall health maintenance.
  4. Selection Committee Decision: The patient receives a decision from the selection committee, determining candidacy. Sometimes, patients are considered candidates with conditions (e.g., completing vaccinations or losing weight). Timing of listing is also discussed to ensure optimal candidacy.
  5. Patient Involvement: Patients play an active role, and the process may involve self-referral, understanding and completing requirements, and active participation in follow-up appointments.
  6. Efficiency and Individualization: The evaluation process is tailored to the patient’s condition, and centers aim to efficiently organize diagnostic workup and multidisciplinary meetings to optimize patient care.

Timing of transplant listing for candidates

  • COPD Patients: For COPD patients, listing is likely when the Bode index is around 7, the FEV1 is under 20%, there is at least moderate pulmonary hypertension (PH), chronic hypercapnia, or severe exacerbations.
  • ILD Patients: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are likely to be listed when showing signs of progression or decline in forced expiratory capacity (FEC), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), or six-minute walk distance. Other indicators include hypoxemia, secondary pulmonary hypertension, or hospitalization for complications.
  • CF Patients: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are considered for listing when FEV1 is below 25% or is rapidly declining, and if they experience frequent hospitalizations. Listing criteria also include the presence of pulmonary hypertension, chronic hypoxemia, or hypercapnia.
  • Pulmonary Hypertension Patients: Those with primary pulmonary hypertension may be listed when the reveal score is above 10 on intravenous therapy, there is progressive hypoxemia, or if there are renal or liver dysfunctions associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH).

Changes from the LAS system to the CAS system

  1. Transition to Composite Allocation Score (CAS):
    • Background and Timing: In March 2023, the lung allocation system (LAS) transitioned to the composite allocation score (CAS), a major change in the allocation of lung transplants.
    • Reasoning Behind the Change: The change aimed to improve organ matching, prioritize sick candidates, enhance long-term survival, promote equity, increase transplant opportunities for specific patient groups (especially pediatric patients), and manage geographical variation in organ placement.
    • Components of CAS:
      • Medical Urgency: Based on waitlist mortality at one year without a transplant and the likelihood of survival post-transplant, now assessed at greater than five years, with equal weighting.
      • Recipient Variables: Includes factors like height discrepancy, blood type matching, sensitization (immune system matching), and other recipient variations.
      • Candidate Biology: Focuses on pediatric patients (less than 18 years old) and individuals are a prior living donor.
      • Donor Variables: Addresses donor characteristics, emphasizing proximity and travel distance from the organ hospital.
    • Early Data and Observations: The initial three-month monitoring period has shown changes in O blood type scores, prompting adjustments. Notable outcomes include a 16% increase in the number of lung transplants, a decrease in waitlist deaths and removals, and changes in median distance between donor hospital and transplant center.
    • Exception Scores: The number of exception scores has increased, allowing for adjustments when the assigned score may not reflect the patient’s true medical urgency.
    • Caution and Early Analysis: Early data, while promising, is subject to caution as centers were aware of the upcoming change. The impact on different age groups and the reasons for exceptions are being closely monitored and may evolve as more data becomes available.
  2. Ongoing Monitoring and Potential Evolution: The data is being closely tracked by medical directors, and further changes to the scoring system may occur based on ongoing analysis and experience with the CAS. The impact on patient outcomes and allocation efficiency will continue to be studied and refined.

Advising patients on what to expect in terms of prognosis and survival after lung transplant

  1. Survival Statistics:
    • Overall three is approximately 50 percent survival at five years, and the median survival time is approximately six and a half years.
    • Significant variations based on factors such as diagnosis, age, and comorbidities.
    • Survival outcomes differ for specific groups, e.g., cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, those older than 65, and individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD).
  2. Quality of Life Emphasis:
    • Shift in focus from survival alone to the patient’s goals and quality of life.
    • Highlighting the importance of understanding and aligning with the patient’s individual quality of life expectations.
  3. Investment in Healthcare Team and Lifestyle Change:
    • Emphasis on the long-term commitment and involvement with the healthcare team post-transplant.
    • A substantial investment in healthcare post-transplant, including regular visits, extensive blood work, and medication management.
    • Cultural shift for patients to adapt to a new routine of frequent medical visits even when otherwise healthy.
  4. Complications and Side Effects:
    • Acknowledgment of potential complications within the first year, making the initial post-transplant period a full-time job.
    • Discussion of various complications and medication side effects, ensuring patients are informed.
    • Multidisciplinary approach involving nutritionists, physical therapists, and other specialists to address complications and enhance the patient’s quality of life.
  5. Individualized Patient Approach:
    • Recognition of the patient’s fight, spirit, and motivation as crucial factors for successful transplantation.
    • Encouraging patients to set goals for their post-transplant life.
    • Ethical considerations regarding transplanting older patients, with the importance of assessing overall well-being, motivation, and mental health.
  6. Acknowledgment of Averages and Unpredictability:
    • Communication of averages, but a reminder of the inherent unpredictability in the post-transplant course.
    • Preparing patients for potential complications and the need to adapt to unforeseen challenges.
    • Managing expectations by highlighting the unpredictability of individual transplant journeys.
  7. Quality of Life Improvement:
    • Despite complications and side effects, lung transplant often results in a significant improvement in the patient’s quality of life.
    • Patients generally experience increased satisfaction and happiness post-transplant, outweighing the challenges associated with the procedure and subsequent care.

References for further reading

  1. Leard LE, Holm AM, Valapour M, Glanville AR, Attawar S, Aversa M, Campos SV, Christon LM, Cypel M, Dellgren G, Hartwig MG, Kapnadak SG, Kolaitis NA, Kotloff RM, Patterson CM, Shlobin OA, Smith PJ, Solé A, Solomon M, Weill D, Wijsenbeek MS, Willemse BWM, Arcasoy SM, Ramos KJ. Consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: An update from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2021 Nov;40(11):1349-1379. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2021.07.005. Epub 2021 Jul 24. PMID: 34419372; PMCID: PMC8979471.
  2. van der Mark SC, Hoek RAS, Hellemons ME. Developments in lung transplantation over the past decade. Eur Respir Rev. 2020 Jul 21;29(157):190132. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0132-2019. PMID: 32699023; PMCID: PMC9489139.
  3. Valapour M, Lehr CJ, Wey A, Skeans MA, Miller J, Lease ED. Expected effect of the lung Composite Allocation Score system on US lung transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2022 Dec;22(12):2971-2980. doi: 10.1111/ajt.17160. Epub 2022 Aug 9. PMID: 35870119.
  4. Arcasoy SM, Kotloff RM. Lung transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 8;340(14):1081-91. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199904083401406. PMID: 10194239.

Radiology Rounds – 11/21/23

We’re back with another #RadiologyRounds by Pulm PEEPs Associate Editor Tess Litchman. An immunosuppressed 65-year-old man presents with neutropenic fever. He is started on empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics with vancomycin and zosyn. Serum beta-D-glucan is positive.

Further, workup reveals a positive serum galactomannan and a BAL PCR that is positive for Aspergillus. The patient is diagnosed with invasive aspergillosis and started on voriconazole. A repeat CT is obtained in 3 weeks. What do you think of the evolving findings?